A mockup of a phone screen with this intervention, explaining that "You may encounter unverified claims on this topic." The icon is of an ear on a shield, representing the idea of 'protecting your ears from rumors.'

Tested

Validated

Dispel Rumors

Messages prebunking misinformation on controversial topics

Innoculates users against misinformation

Messages prebunking misinformation on controversial topics

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Overview

What It Is

Users are shown inoculating messages via interstitial, popup-etc that either:

  1. Explain the flawed argumentation technique used in common misinformation; or
  2. Highlight the scientific consensus on an issue, such as climate change

What It Does

Users who are shown the "prebunking" message are less likely to believe, interact with, or spread misinformation on the topic.

When To Use It

The messages can be set to appear whenever users search for terms or hashtags related to artificially bifurcated, or polarizing, issues (e.g. global warming, autism, vaccines, &c.)

How We Know It Works

How It Might Work

In a review published in the European Review of Social Psychology, researchers explored proactive measures to prevent misinformation from finding traction in the first place, using the psychological theory of “inoculation” as a basis.

Inoculation rests on the idea that if people are forewarned that they might be misinformed and are exposed to weakened examples of the ways in which they might be misled, they will become more immune to misinformation.

The researchers then reviewed a number of techniques that can boost people’s resilience to misinformation. The interventions ranged from general warnings to more specific instructions about misleading (rhetorical) techniques.

Their research show that, based on the available evidence, inoculation appears to be a promising avenue to help protect people from misinformation and “fake news”.

Why It Matters

There has been increasing concern with the growing infusion of misinformation, or “fake news”, into public discourse and politics in many western democracies. Inoculation appears to be a promising avenue to help protect people from their damaging effects.Misinformation can undermine a well-functioning democracy. It can also inhibit the passage of must-pass policy initiatives, such as measures to counter human-caused global warming. It helps all of us to have user interfaces that preemptively inoculate users from the ways that science can be deliberately misconstrued.

Special Considerations

Trying to debunk misinformation after it has spread is like shutting the barn door after the horse has bolted. By prebunking, we aim to stop the spread of fake news in the first place.

Dr. Sander van der Linden, Director of the Cambridge Social Decision-Making Lab

Examples

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Our Confidence Rating

Validated

The best of the best, a grade of Validated is reserved for interventions that have not only been peer reviewed, but have also been successfully replicated.

It is the highest evidentiary grade that the Prosocial Design Network can bestow.

In The Wild

This intervention has precedence, and exists, or has at one time or another, existed in the wild.

Citations

Intervention Specific Research

Countering Misinformation and Fake News Through Inoculation and Prebunking

Author(s)

Date of Publication

Publication Status
Peer Reviewed
Study Design
Experimental
Sample Size(s)

Min.

Total

Max.

Affiliation(s)

Journal Name

European Review of Social Psychology

Entry Type

Research Article or Manuscript

Publication Statistics
Online Impact
Citations
APA Citation

Stephan Lewandowsky & Sander van der Linden (2021) Countering Misinformation and Fake News Through Inoculation and Prebunking, European Review of Social Psychology, DOI: 10.1080/10463283.2021.1876983

Intervention Specific Research

Neutralizing misinformation through inoculation: Exposing misleading argumentation techniques reduces their influence

Author(s)

John Cook, Stephan Lewandowsky, Ullrich K. H. Ecker

Date of Publication

May 5, 2017

Publication Status
Peer Reviewed
Study Design
Experimental
Sample Size(s)

Min.

Total

400

Max.

1092

Affiliation(s)

Journal Name

Public Library of Science (PLOS One)

Entry Type

Research Article or Manuscript

Publication Statistics
Online Impact
Citations
APA Citation

Cook J, Lewandowsky S, Ecker UKH (2017) Neutralizing misinformation through inoculation: Exposing misleading argumentation techniques reduces their influence. PLoS ONE 12(5): e0175799. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0175799

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