A mockup of a prompt that reminds users that "Headlines Don't Tell The Full Story".

Disallow Sharing of Unclicked Links

Cuts down on the spread of misinformation



Dispel Rumors

Disallow Sharing of Unclicked Links

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What It Is

When a user attempts to "share" or "retweet" or equivalent the platform detects whether or not you've clicked the link (and possibly spent any time on the link, if that's technically feasible to track). If the user hasn't, then the platform does not allow them to share the link, and may offer a popup or dialogue to share why.

What Is Its Intended Impact

The intention is to encourage people to think about the content they are sharing and increase the likelihood for them to decide not to share things that look questionable with further examination (e.g., headlines that aren't actually backed up by the content of the article). Since misinformation is easier to identify by reading a full article than just by reading a snippet or headline, this intervention could cut down on the sharing of misinformation.

When To Use It

Whenever a user is about to share a link on an app or platform without having opened the link, the platform can offer this guidance.

How We Know It Works

Why It Might Work

Twitter has started doing this and has tweeted short claims to its effectiveness. Since this is a promotion of their own product, we would like to see more detailed data and methodology, ideally from an independent source.

Why It Matters

There is evidence that sharing unopened links, and therefore unread content, is pervasive.

A 2016 study from computer scientists at Columbia University and Microsoft found that 59% of links posted on Twitter are never clicked.

The creation of user friction in these cases should, as Twitter has deduced, allow for more informed discussions and preempt the spread of hoaxes and disinformation.

Special Considerations


This entry is currently being researched & evaluated!

You could help us improve this entry by contributing facts, media, screenshots, and other evidence of its existence in the wild.
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Our Confidence Rating


A grade of Tentative is given for a number of reasons.

Often it is either because:

  1. The majority of research for an intervention, independently conducted or not, is either observational or ecological studies and lacks a randomized control; or
  2. The findings in its favor have vested or corporate interests behind them—for example, Company X releases its own experiment results about an intervention.

Should a study that would otherwise be labeled as Convincing undergo replication, but fail to replicate the results in good faith, that intervention may also be reassigned a grade of Tentative.

In The Wild

This intervention has precedence, and exists, or has at one time or another, existed in the wild.


Contextual Research

Social Clicks: What and Who Gets Read on Twitter?


Maksym Gabielkov, Arthi Ramachandran, Augustin Chaintreau, Arnaud Legout

Date of Publication

April 13, 2016

Publication Status

Peer Reviewed

Study Design


Sample Size(s)






Columbia University

Journal Name


Entry Type

Research Article or Manuscript

Publication Statistics

Online Impact


APA Citation

Maksym Gabielkov, Arthi Ramachandran, Augustin Chaintreau, Arnaud Legout. Social Clicks: What and Who Gets Read on Twitter?. ACM SIGMETRICS / IFIP Performance 2016, Jun 2016, Antibes Juan-les-Pins, France. ⟨hal-01281190⟩

There's more to learn about this intervention. Want to help?

Do you think this intervention could have more benefits, unacknowledged drawbacks, or other inaccuracies that we've neglected to mention here?

We always welcome more evidence and rigorous research to back up, debunk, or augment what we know.

If you want to be a part of that effort, we'd love to have your help!

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Further Reading

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